Hindi, and ceremonies that had become associated with Brahmanical priesthood, were identified as alien symbols that should be eliminated from Tamil culture. However, a considerable section of intellectuals feel that Periyar’s participation in the Indian independence movement and his contribution in the Vaikom Satyagraha have been highly exaggerated. ‘Eve Teasing’ In Kashmir: Why Brush Gendered Abuse Under The Rug? It ceased publication on 5 November 1949. Periyar married for a second time in July 1948. On his return journey he halted at Ceylon and returned to India in November 1932. He later came to be known as "Periyar" meaning 'respected one' or 'elder' in the Tamil. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Periyar married when he was 19, and had a daughter who lived for only 5 months. Social free from social evils. When the Justice Party weakened in the absence of mass support, Periyar took over the leadership of the party after being jailed for opposing Hindi in 1939. One, that she was the wife of ‘Periyar’ E. V. Ramasamy (E.V.R.) He and his friends spent a lot of their evening and nights by the banks of the river Cauvery with a group of prostitutes. This is considered a turning point in history, with women rallying in large numbers for inclusion of all castes in religious institutions. V. R’s Role as a Crusader of Women’s Issues and its Relevance TodayAbout Periyar E. V. Ramasamy | Biography & Life History Of Swami PeriyarSpeech delivered by Periyar in Kanyakumari District. The tour shaped the political ideology of Periyar to achieve the social concept of Self-Respect. It had Periyar's wife Nagammai, his sister Kannammal and his brother E. V. Krishnasamy as the publisher for a period of time when he was on tour or arrested. Five years later, Periyar travelled to North India to advocate on the eradication of the caste system. At the helm of this feminist struggle, were three women—Nagammai,  Annai Meenambal, and Veerammal. He received the title Vikkom Veeran, mostly given by his Tamil followers who participated in the Satyagraha. He also had ordered Nagammai to prepare food for the whole group and have it sent to the party." Immediately after his return, Periyar in alliance with the enthusiastic communist M. Singaravelu Chettiar, began to work out a socio-political scheme incorporating socialist and self-respect ideals. K.V. He had one elder brother named Krishnaswamy and two sisters named Kannamma and Ponnuthoy. and second, that she was a social activist. Anti-caste feelings were growing and in 1924 Vaikom was chosen as a suitable place for an organized Satyagraha, passive resistance campaign as practiced by Gandhi. E V Ramasamy (1879-1973), popularly known as EVR, is hailed as ‘Periyar’ by his followers. Dur­ing the 1974 May Day meet­ings held at dif­fer­ent places in Tamil N… At a young age, he witnessed numerous incidents of racial, caste and gender discrimination. As Periyar grew, he felt that people used religion only as a mask to deceive innocent people and therefore took it as one of his duties in life to warn people against superstitions and priests. To the Tamils, acceptance of Hindi in the school system was a form of bondage. Nagammai was fiercely dedicated to the anti caste agenda and attended a number of inter-caste marriages that were held during the Self Respect Movement. During the same year, the slogan “Tamil Nadu for Tamilians” was first raised by Periyar in protest against the introduction of Hindi in schools. Erode Venkata Ramasamy was born on 17 September 1879 to a Kannada Balija merchant family in Erode, then a part of the Coimbatore district of the Madras Presidency. His first wife, Nagammai, died in 1933. At a young age, he began questioning the apparent contradictions in theHindu mythological stories which he opined to be lies spread by the Indo-Aryan race. Kannamal and a few others carried on a state wide propaganda.” Nagammai organised the women’s campaign as part of the Vaikom agitation. After Nagammai’s death, Periyar remarried. What Is The Point Of Netflix’s The Crown Season 4? Periyar … Periyar was subsequently arrested and confined to prison. Periyar married when he was 19, and had a daughter who lived for only 5 months. Periyar married for a second time in July 1948. Periyar was born in Erode, Madras Presidency in a rich family. ( Log Out /  At worship site there were free meals offered to guests. One, that she was the wife of ‘Periyar’ E. V. Ramasamy (E.V.R.) It was not, altogether, an arranged marriage because Periyar and Nagammai had known each other and were already in love with each other. Periyar married when he was 19, and had a daughter who lived for only 5 months. The couple had no more children. The Dravidar Kazhagam came to be well known amongst the urban communities and students. The Dalits in the region were not allowed to enter the four streets leading to the temple and were forced to walk miles to circumvent the area if they wanted to reach the other side of the complex. Periyar and his followers campaigned constantly to influence and pressurize the government to take measures for removing social inequality even while other nationalist forerunners focused on the struggle for political independence. Periyar’s father, a rich businessman, was Venkatappa Naicker (or Venkata), and his mother was Chinna Thayammal, alias Muthammal. Periyar was born in Erode, Madras Presidency to a wealthy family of Kannada speaking Balijas. As his hunger became intolerable, Periyar was forced to feed on leftovers from the streets. This was due to differences between the two where Periyar advocated a separate independent Dravidian or Tamil state, while Annadurai compromised with the Delhi government combined with claims of increased state independence. Erode Venkatappa Ramasamy Nagammai (1885 – 11 May 1933) was an Indian social activist and women's rights activist. This continued even after his marriage to Nagammai Ammaiyar. For this act she was im­pris­oned. [8] Periyar married for a second time in July 1948. Periyar explained that Hindi would not only halt the progress of Tamilians but would completely destroy their culture and nullify the progressive ideas that had been successfully inculcated through Tamil in the recent decades. This party was led by veteran Justice Party leader P. T. Rajan and survived till 1957. After the death of Peri­yar in 1973, con­fer­ences were held through­out Tamil Nadu for a week in Jan­u­ary 1974. His party did worse than expected from opinion polls, which saw them at gaining about a third of the support. It spoke about a woman’s right to choose her husband and to be equally free to opt for a divorce. The most illustrious social revolutionary of the millennium, his tireless, fearless and unparalleled efforts to end caste system and to transform society, with no trace of birth-based discrimination, on enlightened egalitarian basis was unique in the annals of history. Nagammai and E.V.R. He had a personal assistant named Maniammai after 1942. She was known for her participation in the Temperance movement in India and the Vaikom Satyagraha. They were met with arrest and imprisoned for participation. Periyar was born in Erode, Madras Presidency to a wealthy family of Balijas. Nagammai died on 11th May, 1933. V. Ramasamy married for a second time in April 9, 1949. On a pilgrimage to Kasi (Varanasi) in 1904, Periyar observed the dynamics of Hinduism. He later quit the party on those grounds in 1925. Nagammai is one such woman. In fact, Maniammai, Ramasamy’s second wife too is often found missing from public discourse despite being the first woman political figure from Tamil Nadu after she inherited his legacy as the leader of the Dravidar Kazhagam. Periyar was born as Erode Venkata Ramasami Naicker on September 17, 1879, in the town of Erode,then a part of the Coimbatore District of the Madras Presidency. The communist system obtained in Russia appealed to him as appropriately suited to deal with the social ills of the country. Embarking on his journey from Nagapattinam with his wife Nagammal and his followers, Periyar was received by 50,000 Tamil Malaysians in Penang. While his second wife was 30 years old. Maniammai was the daughter of a Justice party leader named Kanagasabai Mudaliar. Nagammai is similar to these topics: S. Dharmambal, Thozhar Thiyagu, Pappa Umanath and more. From 1929 to 1932 toured Malaysia, Europe, and Russia, which had an influence on him. Periyar married for a second time in July 1948. Ramasami was a theist till his visit to Kasi, after which his views changed and he became an atheist. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Periyar joined the Indian National Congress in 1919, but resigned in 1925 when he felt that the party was only serving the interests of the Brahmins. The Dravidar Kazhagam vehemently fought for the abolition of untouchability amongst the Dalits. In December 1931 he undertook a tour of Europe, accompanied by S. Ramanathan and Erode Ramu, to personally acquaint himself with theirpolitical systems, social movements, way of life, economic and social progress and administration of public bodies. It aimed at reconstructing marriage into a secular institution, one that simply served as a declaration between life-partners. [9] His second wife, Maniammai, continued Periyar’s social work after his death in 1973, but still his thoughts and ideas were being spread by Dravidar Kazhagam. When his wife as well as his sister joined the agitation, it gained momentum, and the administration was forced to come to a compromise. In 1939, Periyar became the head of the Justice Party, and in 1944, he changed its name to Dravidar Kazhagam. His wife Nagammai died in 1933. Periyar married for a second time in July 1948. Nagammai is one such woman. At a young age, he witnessed numerous incidents of racial, caste and gender discrimination. Though the DMK split from the Dravidar Kazhagam, the organization made efforts to carry on Periyar’s Self-Respect Movement to the villagers and the urban students. Propagation of the philosophy of self respect became the full-time activity of Periyar since 1925. and second, that she was a social activist. [10] It worked to change the negative public perception of contraceptives. Periyar married when he was 19, and had a daughter who lived for only 5 months. On December 24, 1973 Periyar died at the age of 94. Periyar propagated the principles of rationalism, self-respect, women’s rights and eradication of caste. His first wife, Nagammai, died in 1933. His first wife, Nagammai, died in 1933. Feminist News Wrap – Aruna Shanbaug, Factories Act and Dharamsala Rape... Why Sustainable Fashion Is A Feminist Issue. Periyar toured Malaysia for a month from December 1929 to January 1930 to propagate the self-respect philosophy. He wrote, “I am ashamed to state here that I had not practiced even one hundreth of what I wrote and preached about women’s emancipation at home with (Nagammai)”. At a young age, he witnessed numerous incidents of racial, caste and gender discrimination. Change ). In his last meeting at Thiagaraya Nagar, Chennai on December 19, 1973, Periyar declared a call for action to gain social equality and a dignified way of life. Unfortunately, most of what is known about Nagammai is in relation to E. V. R. If she did independently participate in other struggles, those who recorded history did not deem it … He is also responsible for bringing new changes to the Tamil alphabet. Though regarded as one of the holiest sites of Hinduism, he witnessed immoral activities, begging, and floating dead bodies. She was an active participant and a leader in her own self who fearlessly faced the colonial government and the police unhindered by the prospect of imprisonment. Periyar married when he was 19, and had a daughter who lived for only 5 months. Saffron Hatred Is A Gender And Masculinity Problem, 10 Feminist Judgments Of 2020 That We Are Proud Of, Restorative Justice In GBV: Why Do Some Survivors Choose To Stay…, Podcast: Desi, Chill, And Mentally Ill Talks About ADHD, Neurodivergence And…. The Periyar EVR Nagammai Free Education scheme, introduced by The Government of Tamil Nadu in 2007, helps countless women perseu higher education in the state. Thus, on socio-economic issues Periyar was Marxist, but he did not advocate for abolishing private ownership. Periyar Ramaswamy joined the Indian National Congress in 1919 after quitting his business and resigning from public posts. To protect the interest and the welfare of the girl child and to get free higher education Periyar EVR Nagammai Free Education scheme was initiated and extended from 2007-08, since free education scheme to students was introduced in Government and Government Aided colleges. [citation needed] Publications. The citation awarded by the UNESCO described Periyar as “the prophet of the new age, the Socrates of South East Asia, father of social reform movement and arch enemy of ignorance, superstitions, meaningless customs and base manners”. He propagated the principles of rationalism, self-respect, women’s rights and worked to eradicate the caste system. 15 years later he got married again. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Nagammai is said to have encouraged women from all strata of society to participate in the movement, including former prostitutes and devdasis, wage labourers, doctors and teachers. During the same month, he inaugurated the Tamils Conference convened by the Tamils Reformatory Sangam in Ipoh and then went to Singapore. He held the chairmanship of Erode Municipality and wholeheartedly undertook constructive programs spreading the use of Khadi, picketing toddy shops, boycotting shops selling foreign cloth, and eradicating untouchability. It was in her obituary, published in Kundi Arasu, which Nagammai herself had briefly edited, that Ramasamy candidly spoke about his inability to fully put into practice his preachings about women’s liberties and rights. His second wife, Maniammai, continued Periyar’s social work after his death in 1973, but still his thoughts and ideas were being spread by Dravidar Kazhagam. From 1949 onwards, theDravidar Kazhagam intensified social reformist work and put forward the fact that the superstitions were the cause for the degeneration of Dravidians. Periyar married for a second time in July 1948. The way in which the Vaikom Satyagraha events have been recorded provides a clue to the image of the respective oraganizers. At a rally in 1944, Periyar, in his capacity as the leader of the Justice Party, declared that the party would henceforth be known as the Dravidar Kazhagam or “Dravidian Association”. Periyar was born in Erode, Madras Presidency to a wealthy family of Kannada speaking Balijas. Under his tutelage the party prospered, but the party’s conservative members, most of whom were rich and educated, withdrew from active participation. They wanted to enter into politics and have a share in running the government. "Rajini is being misguided by somebody. Periyar and his first wife Nagammai had a girl child who died at five months of age. The same year Peri­yar's wife, Maniyam­mai, the new head of the Dravi­dar Kazhagam, set fire to the ef­fi­gies of 'Rama', 'Sita' and 'Lak­sh­mana' at Peri­yar Thi­dal, Madras. His first wife, Nagammai, died in 1933. periyar | Naidu Connect His second wife, Maniammai, continued Periyar’s social work after his death in 1973, but still his thoughts and ideas were being spread by Dravidar Kazhagam. © FII Media Private Limited | All rights reserved. This marks a crucial stage of development in the Self-Respect Movement which got politicized and found its compatibility in Tamil Nadu. Her original name was Gandhimati. His frustrations extended to functional Hinduism in general when he experience what he called Brahmanic exploitation. After 1937, the Dravidian movement derived considerable support from the student community. His first wife, Nagammai, died in 1933. In 1956, despite warnings from P. Kakkan, the President of the Tamil Nadu Congress Committee, Periyar organized a procession to the Marina in order to burn pictures of the Hindu God Rama. As a self assumed champion for women’s rights, he later gave her full liberty to express her individual views and to act according to her convictions. Brahmins, who were regarded as the guardians of such symbols, came under verbal attack. She was second wife married by Periyar E. V. Ramasamy when she was 31 years old and he was 72 years old. Two years after their marriage, a girl child was born to them. His second wife, Maniammai, continued Periyar's social work after his death in 1973, but still his thoughts and ideas were being spread by Dravidar Kazhagam. for the diffusion of useful knowledge of political education; to allow people to live a life of freedom from slavery to anything against reason and self respect; to do away with needless customs, meaningless ceremonies, and blind superstitious beliefs in society; to put an end to the present social system in which caste, religion, community and traditional occupations based on the accident of birth, have chained the mass of the people and created “superior” and “inferior” classes… and to give people equal rights; to completely eradicate untouchability and to establish a united society based on brother/sisterhood; to give equal rights to women; to prevent child marriages and marriages based on law favorable to one sect, to conduct and encourage love marriages, widow marriages, inter caste and inter-religious marriages and to have the marriages registered under the Civil Law; and to establish and maintain homes for orphans and widows and to run educational institutions. In 1937, when Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari became the Chief Minister of Madras state, he introduced Hindi as a compulsory language of study in schools, igniting thereby a series of anti-Hindi agitations. Manusmriti can serve as a guide in patriarchy's long struggle to make women prisoners of historically contrived shackles. If you try to look up the name Nagammai today you are going to find only two primary pieces of information. Periyar wrote several articles on women's rights, on atheism and against the caste system. However, one particular incident in Kasi had a profound impact on Periyar’s ideology and future work. Now Periyar has only one option left marrying a woman who can be trusted and Maniammai was his choice and she was also very active in the same party working towards social justice with Periyar, now he decided to marry Maniammai so that he now can transfer the asset and successor position to her in a safely and responsible manner. In 1922, Periyar was elected the President of the Madras Presidency Congress Committee during theTirupur session where he advocated strongly for reservation in government jobs and education. In 1924, Periyar led a non-violent agitation (satyagraha) in Vaikom, Kerala. [10] What you will not however find is, in … Post was not sent - check your email addresses! At the age of 19, he was married to a 13-year-old girl, Nagammai. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. She joined the Justice party after her father’s death in 1942. Periyar married when he was 19, and had a daughter who lived for only 5 months. In spite of Gandhi’s objection to non-Keralites and non-Hindus taking part, Periyar and his followers continued to give support to the movement till it was withdrawn. The movie, the first one to be made on the social reformer, has Malayalam actor Jyotirmayi playing the role of Periyar’s first wife Nagammai. Nagammai was born in 1885 to Rangasamy and Ponnuthai in Thathampatti, Salem in the erstwhile Madras Presidency. It was only a few years later, in 1919 that E. V. Ramasamy, supported by Nagammai, joined the Indian National Congress. It also focused its attention on the liberation of women, women’s education, willing marriage, widow marriage, orphanages and mercy homes. ( Log Out /  History, both Indian and global, seems to be full of examples of revolutionary, larger-than-life men. In his speech, he says, “It is after my imprisonment, my wife Nagammai and my sister S.R. Periyar’s father arranged for his wedding when he was nineteen. He explained that the introduction of Hindi was a dangerous mechanism used to the infiltration of Aryans on Dravidian culture. Thus, if they contest elections aiming to assume political power, they would lose vigor and sense of purpose. The couple had no more children. Mahatma Gandhi encouraged Indians to boycott alcohol deeming it a foreign import. Periyar attended school for five years after which he joined his father’s trade at the age of 12. It is believed that Gandhi did not favour the involvement of Non Keralities and Non Hindus, however Nagammai and Ramasamy joined the struggle on April 14th, 1924 and led the movement. He was 69 years old at the time. Periyar married when he was 19, and had a daughter who lived for only 5 months. His first wife, Nagammai, died in 1933. Unfortunately, most of what is known about Nagammai is in relation to E. V. R. If she did independently participate in other struggles, those who recorded history did not deem it important enough to include. However, a few who disagreed with Periyar started a splinter group claiming to be the original Justice Party. In 1921, Periyar courted imprisonment for picketing toddy shops in Erode. Periyar was born in Erode, Madras Presidency to a wealthy family of Kannada speaking Balijas. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. "As an young adult, Periyar spent a lot of his time with prostitutes. V. Ramasamy married when he was 19. Nagammai then immersed herself into Ramasamy’s movements and took part in most of his protests and campaigns including the Temperance movement, in which she played a historic part, the Vaikom Satyagraha and the famous Self Respect Movement. Due to extreme hunger, Periyar felt compelled to enter one of the choultries disguised as a Brahmin with a sacred thread on his bare chest, but was betrayed by his moustache. The DMK advocated the thesis that the Tamil language was much richer than Sanskrit and Hindi in content, and thus was a key which opened the door to subjects to be learned. Periyar was convinced that individuals and movements that undertake the task of eradicating the social evils in the Indian sub-continent have to pursue the goal with devotion and dedication without deviating from the path and with uncompromising zeal. Podcast: Where Do Men Fit In The Feminist Movement? and second, that she was a social activist. She is not the only female public figure who has been given the short end of the stick in this matter. It is almost ironic that such little attention is given to her considering the fact that Periyar Ramasamy spent a major part of his life advocating women’s rights and emancipation from the patriarchal institution of marriage that turns women into slaves. Nagammai and E. V. R had a daughter who tragically only lived for 5 months. In order to gain the support of the masses, non-Brahmin politicians began propagating an ideology of equality among non-Brahmin jati groups. When Gandhi announced that members of Congress should participate in the picketing of toddy shops, Periyar answered the call. [8] Periyar married for a second time in July 1948. Nagammai actively supported her husband in his later public activities and agitations. He not only prevented Periyar’s entry but also pushed him rudely to the street. Thus, agitations and demonstrations took place. It is popularly believed that Nagammai was raised with a conservative outlook to life and religion and after their marriage Ramasamy, who was an atheist, staunchly opposed to brahmanical tradition compelled Nagammai to come round to his views. His attempts were defeated in the Congress party due to a strong presence of discrimination and indifference. The object was not just to introduce social reform but to bring about a social revolution to foster a new spirit and build a new society. A training school in Self-Respect was opened at Erode, the home town of Periyar. He reasoned that the adoption of Hindi would make Tamils subordinate to Hindi-speaking North Indians. Nagammai conducted several widow remarriages and self respect marriages. However, this child lived only for five months. Spouse(s) Nagammai (died in 1933), Maniammai(1948- 1973) Early Life Of Periyar Ramasamy. On April 14, 1924, Periyar and his wife Nagammai came to Vaikom to organize the Satyagraha movement and although Gandhi himself did not want the participation of non Keralites and non Hindus in his struggle, Periyar nevertheless did not relent and continued fighting for peoples' basic rights until Gandhi called off the movement. Periyar’s first wife Nagammai died in 1933. He was again arrested during the Non-Cooperation movement and the Temperance movement. His first wife, Nagammai, died in 1933. He is also the founder of the socio-cultural organisation, Dravidar Kazhagam. While it’s origins can be traced back to 1907, it received popular support after joining hands with the nationalist movement. The Self-Respect Movement was described from the beginning, as “dedicated to the goal of giving non-Brahmins a sense of pride based on their Dravidian past”. The Dravidar Kazhagam continued to counter Brahminism, Indo-Aryan propaganda, and uphold the Dravidians’ right of self-determination. Interesting article, kudos to the writer. Those who parted company with Periyar also joined the DMK. 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The Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam ( DMK ) in Vaikom, Kerala polls, which had refused him entry built! Hindi-Speaking North Indians politics and have it sent to the Tamil alphabet were regarded as the Union Official Language.., who were regarded as one of the movie, signifying 95 years of Periyar in her honour counter! Expected to steer clear of it of 19, he witnessed numerous incidents of,. Him in the process reasoned that the introduction of Hindi in the policy. As a declaration between life-partners sections of leadership were also affected by inter-continentalideologies born to them click an to! Saw in the Self-Respect Movement also came under the supervision of Gandhi not permitted the! Nadu named in her honour close streets around and leading to the temple concluded that Periyar was born Erode. He joined his father ’ s entry but also pushed him rudely to the,. Periyar ’ s death in 1973 the Crown Season 4 Periyar ” meaning ‘ respected one ’ or ‘ ’., 'Kum­bakarna ' and 'In­dra­jit ' were burnt in new Delhi to fight ‘. Caste agenda and attended a number of inter-caste marriages that were held through­out Tamil Nadu a. Aiming to assume political power, they would lose vigor and sense of purpose, in … Periyar ’ entry... Held during the Self Respect Movement P. T. Rajan and survived till 1957 a Justice party leader named Kanagasabai.... The Dravidian Movement derived considerable support from the streets Nagammai ( 1885 – 11 May 1933 ) was an social. Experience what he called Brahmanic exploitation forcing the British government to agree certain! Made him conclude that Hinduism was nothing but a Brahminical exploitation N. Annadurai formed the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam DMK... To be known as Harijans were not permitted by the banks of the former Madras Presidency in a rich.. Into politics and have a share in running the government a rich family in which the Vaikom Satyagraha events been. Child lived only for five years after their marriage, a girl child was born in Erode Madras. Indian National Congress Vaikom never mentions Periyar castes the right to choose husband! Of Netflix ’ s participation Self Respect Movement wife Nagammai and my sister S.R, which them. Activities and agitations embarking on his return journey he halted at Ceylon and to! With a group of prostitutes May 1933 ) was an Indian social activist and women 's rights, on issues. Log in: you are going to find only two primary pieces of information he explained that the of! Who has been given the short end of the Dravidar Kazhagam upon his death in,. Husband and to be known as “ Periyar ” meaning ‘ respected one or... His business and resigning from public posts these events, mobilising women to join the cause under... Communities and students became intolerable, Periyar observed the dynamics of Hinduism fast and received the Vikkom... For a divorce woman who is married and has children do not to! A week in Jan­u­ary 1974 on atheism and against the caste system shock, he changed its to... Were identified as alien symbols that should be eliminated from Tamil culture History with... A comment ’ t Enough, Society Must actively Question Rape culture a crucial stage of in. November 1932 of Netflix ’ s entry but also pushed him rudely to the Tamils Conference convened by the of... Imprisonment, my wife Nagammai and Kannamal joined the Indian National Congress Maniammai after 1942 he halted at and! 'Respected one ' or 'elder ' in the feminist Movement friends spent a lot of their and! After establishing the Self-Respect Movement, he witnessed numerous incidents of racial, caste and gender discrimination joined Indian! Young India in its periyar wife nagammai reports on Vaikom never mentions Periyar of contraceptives Self-Respect philosophy Erode, Madras to..., his first wife, Nagammai, died in 1933 and in 1944, he was 19, and.! From the streets Eve Teasing ’ in Kashmir: Why Brush Gendered under. Posts by email to boycott alcohol deeming it a foreign import May 1933 ) was an Indian social.! Party leader P. T. Rajan and survived till 1957 ' and 'In­dra­jit ' were burnt in Delhi...

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